Many people in the developing world, from shop owners to farmers, face risk from hazards such as weather, disease, or theft, but largely lack insurance to manage these risks. For farmers, risk of bad weather may be preventing them from investing and yielding more from their crops, while health insurance can provide another important safety net. IPA’s research in this area explores how insurance can help protect the poor from unexpected emergencies.

Impact evaluations in the financial inclusion sector often attempt to measure the financial health of their participants.

A farmer on his land plot in Brazil

Recent research suggests that droughts and other natural disasters may impact farmers’ cognition as well as their agricultural income.