Several field experiments find positive returns to grants for male and not female microentrepreneurs. But, these analyses largely overlook that male and female micro-entrepreneurs often belong to the same household. Using data from randomized trials in India, Sri Lanka and Ghana, we show that the gender gap in microenterprise performance is not due to a gap in aptitude. Instead, low average returns of female-run enterprises are observed because women’s capital is invested into their husbands’ enterprises rather than their own. When women are the sole household enterprise operator, capital shocks lead to large increases in profits. Household-level income gains are equivalent regardless of the grant or loan recipient’s gender.

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Working Paper
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April 18, 2018

Using a randomized-control trial, this study evaluates a program designed to support Ghanaian kindergarten student-teachers during pre-service training through mentorship and in-classroom training. Several potential barriers to improved teaching quality and learning outcomes are examined. Findings show that the program improved knowledge and implementation of the national curriculum for individuals both when they were student-teachers and, the following year, when they became newly qualified teachers (NQTs). There were mixed impacts on professional well-being, increasing personal accomplishment and motivation but decreasing job satisfaction for NQTs. There were mixed impacts on teaching quality, with increases in child-led learning but decreases in some other aspects of quality. There were no impacts on NQTs’ student learning outcomes. The findings highlight system level challenges with both the posting of NQTs and the absence of support in their first teaching year. Implications for global early childhood education policy and teacher education are discussed.

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Published Paper
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March 30, 2018
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A multi-faceted program comprising a grant of productive assets, training, coaching, and savings has been found to build sustainable income for those in extreme poverty. We focus on two important questions: whether a mere grant of productive assets would generate similar impacts (it does not), and whether access to a savings account and a deposit collection service would generate similar impacts (it does not).

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Working Paper
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January 23, 2018
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Improving learning outcomes is a key policy priority in Ghana. To ensure that well-intentioned policy goals translate into improved learning outcomes, decision-makers are eager to: (1) evaluate the success of education programs through rigorous research; and (2) build sector-wide frameworks of accountability through improved monitoring and feedback mechanisms. Both forms of evidence are necessary for a strong education system.

The Ministry of Education is therefore calling for proposals for presentations on research relating to the aforementioned topics. Authors of accepted proposals may be invited to present their work at the Ghana education evidence summit scheduled to take place in July 2018.

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January 12, 2018
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Improving learning outcomes is a key policy priority in Ghana. To ensure that well-intentioned policy goals translate into improved learning outcomes, decision-makers are eager to: (1) evaluate the success of education programs through rigorous research; and (2) build sector-wide frameworks of accountability through improved monitoring and feedback mechanisms. Both forms of evidence are necessary for a strong education system.

Evidence Day, a part of the Ghana Ministry of Education's Education Week, will bring together policymakers, researchers, and practitioners to: a) share rigorous evidence about improving accountability and learning outcomes in education, in Ghana and internationally; b) identify ways in which evidence from evaluations can be used for better decision- making; and c) share monitoring and evaluation tools that can inform a framework of accountability for Ghana’s education sector.

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January 12, 2018

Gender gaps in participation and representation are common in new democracies, both at the elite level and at the grassroots. We investigate efforts to close the grassroots gender gap in rural Ghana, a patronage-based democracy in which a dense network of political party branches provides the main avenue for local participation. We report results from a randomized field experiment to address norms against women's participation and encourage women's participation ahead of Ghana's December 2016 elections. The treatment is a large community meeting presided over by the traditional chief, known locally as a durbar. We find null results. The treatment was hampered in part by its incomplete implementation, including by local political party leaders who may have feared an electorally-risky association with a controversial social message. The study emphasizes the importance of social norms in explaining gender gaps in grassroots politics in new democracies and contributes new evidence on the limitations of common civic education interventions used in the developing world.

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Working Paper
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December 31, 2017

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