English
Systematic reviews of existing evidence show promising effects of community health worker (CHW) programs as a strategy to improve child survival, but also highlight challenges faced by CHW programs, including insufficient incentives to deliver timely and appropriate services. We assessed the effect of an incentivized community health delivery program in Uganda on all-cause under-five mortality. A cluster-randomized controlled trial, embedded within the scale-up of a new community health delivery program, was undertaken in 214 clusters in 10 districts in Uganda. In the intervention clusters micro entrepreneur-based community health promoters (CHPs) were deployed over a three-year period (2011-2013). On average 38 households were surveyed in each cluster at the end of 2013, for a total sample size of 8,119 households. The primary study outcome was all-cause under-five mortality (U5MR). U5MR was reduced by 27% (adjusted RR 0.73, 95% CI 0.58-0.93).
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Working Paper
Date:
September 01, 2016
Spanish
Una capacitación financiera simplificada basada en reglas prácticas mejoró las prácticas de negocios y los resultados económicos de microempresarios en República Dominicana, mientras que una capacitación técnica basada en principios contables tradicionales no produjo impactos significativos.
Type:
Brief
Date:
August 30, 2016
English
We report the results of a randomized field experiment in the Philippines on the effects of two common anti-vote-selling strategies involving eliciting promises from voters. An invitation to promise not to vote-sell is taken up by most respondents, reduces vote-selling, and has a larger effect in races with smaller vote-buying payments. The treatment reduces vote-selling in the smallest-stakes election by 10.9 percentage points. Inviting voters to promise to “vote your conscience” despite accepting money is significantly less effective. The results are consistent with a behavioral model in which voters are only partially sophisticated about their vote-selling temptation.
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Working Paper
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August 19, 2016
Spanish
El acceso a servicios nancieros es crucial para el crecimiento de la Pequeña y Mediana Empresa (PyME). Estos servicios permiten a los emprendedores innovar, incrementar su e ciencia, expandirse a nuevos mercados y crear nuevos puestos de trabajo. Sin embargo, la mayoría de las PyMEs en países en desarrollo son incapaces de conseguir el nanciamiento necesario para alcanzar su potencial. Proporcionar nanciamiento a las PyMEs en dichos países puede ser riesgoso y costoso para los prestamistas, lo que ha llevado a una brecha de crédito de aproximadamente un billón de dólares (IFC, 2011). Para reducir la brecha de crédito, instituciones nancieras, gobiernos y donantes han invertido en una gran cantidad de programas y políticas orientadas a proporcionar a las PyMEs el nanciamiento necesario para crecer e innovar. No obstante, la e cacia de estos programas en reducir los obstáculos para el nanciamiento de las PyMEs no ha sido evaluada con rigor. El Programa PyME en Innovations for P...
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Brief
Date:
August 12, 2016
English
We evaluated a program to improve literacy instruction on the Kenyan coast using training workshops, semiscripted lesson plans, and weekly text-message support for teachers to understand its impact on students’ literacy outcomes and on the classroom practices leading to those outcomes. The evaluation ran from the beginning of Grade 1 to the end of Grade 2 in 51 government primary schools chosen at random, with 50 schools acting as controls. The intervention had an impact on classroom practices with effect sizes from 0.57 to 1.15. There was more instruction with written text and more focus on letters and sounds. There was a positive impact on three of four primary measures of children’s literacy after two years, with effect sizes up to 0.64, and school dropout reduced from 5.3% to 2.1%. This approach to literacy instruction is sustainable, and affordable and a similar approach has subsequently been adopted nationally in Kenya.
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Published Paper
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August 11, 2016
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One Acre Fund: Measuring Yields from Space A substantial proportion of the world’s poor are smallholder farmers, and measuring their productivity is a basic first step in understanding where livelihoods are improving (and where additional help is needed).  Unfortunately, comprehensive data on farmers’ productivity do not exist.  They are collected piecemeal by researchers and governments in limited areas of the globe, and over limited periods, typically using household surveys which are both expensive and time consuming.  One Acre Fund (1AF) is a social enterprise working with such farmers in East Africa. 1AF’s mission is to address long-standing barriers to farmer productivity. 1AF provides seeds and fertilizers on credit, delivers agricultural inputs within walking distance of farmers’ homes, trains farmers on how to use inputs most effectively, helps them store their crops safely, and links them to local traders to provide access to markets. This comprehensive approach is geared tow...
Type:
Goldilocks Toolkit
Date:
August 09, 2016
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Premise: Monitoring Food Prices in Post-Disaster Environments In most countries, government agencies collect data on the prices of consumer goods throughout the year, using periodic market and household level surveys run by National Statistics Offices (NSOs). The data are reported in aggregate (in the form of a monthly consumer price index, for example) and are used for central planning and macroeconomic policy as well as private sector decision-making.  In tandem, the World Food Programme (WFP) monitors prices for a small set of staple goods, particularly in areas of the world prone to food insecurity, where emergencies are frequent and resources to collect high quality data are scarce. WFP is a United Nations (UN) humanitarian agency that fights hunger worldwide through food aid, emergency assistance, and disaster prevention activities. A key function of the agency is to track food security globally, through a program of Vulnerability Analysis and Mapping (VAM). The VAM is a collecti...
Type:
Goldilocks Toolkit
Date:
August 09, 2016
English
We worked with two microlenders to test impacts of randomly assigned reminders for loan repayments in the “text messaging capital of the world”. We do not find strong evidence that loss versus gain framing or messaging timing matter. Messages only robustly improve repayment when they include the loan officer’s name. This effect holds for clients serviced by the loan officer previously but not for first-time borrowers. Taken together, the results highlight the potential and limits of communications technology for mitigating moral hazard, and suggest that personal obligation/reciprocity between borrowers and bank employees can be harnessed to help overcome market failures.
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Working Paper
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August 01, 2016
Financial products and transfer schemes are often designed to help individuals improve welfare by following through on intertemporal plans. This paper implements an artefactual field experiment in Malawi to test the ability of households to manage a cash windfall. This study varies whether 474 households receive a payment in cash or through direct deposit into pre-established accounts at a local bank. Payments are made immediately, with one day delay, or with eight days delay. Defaulting the payments into savings accounts leads to higher bank account balances, an effect that persists for several weeks. However, neither savings defaults nor payment delays affect the amount or composition of spending, suggesting that households manage cash effectively without the use of formal financial products. 
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Working Paper
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August 01, 2016
English
This paper identifies separate and unique pathways to profits among small businesses in South Africa that are exposed to marketing or finance training in a randomized control study. The marketing group achieves greater profits by adopting a growth focus on higher sales, greater investments in stock and materials, and hiring more employees. The finance group achieves similar profit gains but through an efficiency focus on lower costs. Both groups show significantly higher adoption of business practices related to their respective training program. Consistent with a growth focus, marketing/sales skills are significantly more beneficial to firm owners who ex ante have less exposure to different business contexts. In contrast and in line with an efficiency focus, entrepreneurs who have been running more established businesses prior to training benefit significantly more from finance/accounting skills.
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Working Paper
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July 30, 2016
English
I investigate whether a school-based deworming intervention in Kenya had long-term effects on young children in the region. I exploit positive externalities from the program to estimate impacts on younger children who were not directly treated. Ten years after the intervention, I find large cognitive effects—comparable to between 0.5 and 0.8 years of schooling—for children who were less than one year old when their communities received mass deworming treatment. I find no effect on child height or stunting. Because treatment was administered through schools, I also estimate effects among children whose older siblings received treatment directly; in this subpopulation, effects on cognition are nearly twice as large.
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Working Paper
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July 27, 2016
English
Women who received private access to vouchers for contraceptives were more likely to take up and use contraception, compared to women whose husbands were involved in the voucher program. In contexts in which women have less bargaining power in family planning decisions, providing private access to contraceptives may be an important and effective means of enabling women to achieve their fertility goals.
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Brief
Date:
July 25, 2016
English
An audit study was conducted in Ghana, Mexico and Peru to understand the quality of financial information and products offered to low-income customers. Trained auditors visited multiple financial institutions, seeking credit and savings products. Consistent with Gabaix and Laibson (2006), staff only provides information about the cost when asked, disclosing less than a third of the total cost voluntarily. In fact, the cost disclosed voluntarily is uncorrelated with the expensiveness of the product. In addition, clients are rarely offered the cheapest product, most likely because staff is incentivized to offer more expensive and thus more profitable products to the institution. This suggests that clients are not provided enough information to be able to compare among products, and that disclosure and transparency policies may be ineffective because they undermine the commercial interest of financial institutions.
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Working Paper
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July 19, 2016
English
Using new data from a field experiment in India, we test hypotheses about micropension design in a poor population. We elicit demand for the basic micropension in addition to variants with different minimum withdrawal ages, government match rates, and options for lump sum withdrawal. A majority (80%) of respondents report interest in the micropension, and the amount they are willing to contribute would be enough to cover about 40% of expected old-age consumption. We find that prospective policyholders value the inability to access the assets until a particular age. We also find that they respond positively to the government match rate.
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Published Paper
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July 12, 2016
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Initial access to school is nearly universal in Kenya, but many children who enroll drop out before completing primary school. In this mixed-methods study, we use quantitative data from a randomized control trial involving 2666 upper primary-grade students, as well as qualitative data from interviews with 41 schoolchildren, dropouts, and parents, to examine dropout. Poorer baseline performance on literacy and numeracy assessments predicted a higher risk of dropout. Interviews revealed that children are the primary decision-makers rather than parents. Together, these findings suggest that school quality interventions may be an effective means of reducing primary school dropout in this region.
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Published Paper
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July 06, 2016
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State capacity to provide public services depends on the motivation of the agents recruited to deliver them. We design an experiment to quantify the effect of agent selection on service effectiveness. The experiment, embedded in a nationwide recruitment drive for a new government health position in Zambia, shows that agents attracted to a civil service career have more skills and ambition than those attracted to “doing good”. Data from a mobile platform, administrative records, and household surveys show that they deliver more services, change health practices, and produce better health outcomes in the communities they serve.
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Working Paper
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July 05, 2016
English
This study estimates long-run impacts of a child health investment, exploiting community-wide experimental variation in school-based deworming. The program increased labor supply among men and education among women, with accompanying shifts in labor market specialization. Ten years after deworming treatment, men who were eligible as boys stay enrolled for more years of primary school, work 17% more hours each week, spend more time in non-agricultural self-employment, are more likely to hold manufacturing jobs, and miss one fewer meal per week. Women who were in treatment schools as girls are approximately one quarter more likely to have attended secondary school, halving the gender gap. They reallocate time from traditional agriculture into cash crops and non-agricultural self-employment. We estimate a conservative annualized financial internal rate of return to deworming of 32%, and show that mass deworming may generate more in future government revenue than it costs in subsidies.
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Working Paper
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July 01, 2016
Letter
The Financial Inclusion Program (FIP) provides technical and financial support to rigourous evaluations and pilot projects related to financial service design, digital finance, and financial capability. The Program’s projects, which range in scale from pilots to multi-country randomized evaluations, are implemented across developing and advanced economies and focus on innovations that are informed by behavioral insights, are cost-effective, and present a promising business case for scale-up. FIP identifies new research projects and promising partnerships through open calls for proposals and periodic matchmaking and training events, and disseminates recent results through conferences, webinars, and publications.
Type:
Brief
Date:
June 15, 2016
English
We study how healthcare subsidies and improved information affect over- and under-use of primary healthcare in a randomized control trial of 1544 children in Mali. In a dynamic model of healthcare demand, misuse relative to policymaker preferences (here given by WHO care-seeking standards) arises from seeking care too early or too late during an illness spell. Using nine weeks of daily data, we show that the barrier to optimal care seeking is cost, not information: subsidies increase demand by over 250%, but overuse is rare with or without the subsidy. Information, contrary to intent, appears to increase underuse, as our model predicts.
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Working Paper
Date:
June 01, 2016

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