Download
Experiments are increasingly used to better understand various aspects of civil conflict. A critical barrier to peace is often conflict recurrence after a settlement or other attempt to end fighting between sides. This chapter examines the growing literature on experiments in post-conflict contexts to understand their contributions and limitations to our understanding of the dynamics in this period. It argues that work on post-conflict contexts takes two different perspectives: a peace stabilization approach emphasizes special problems from civil conflict, including how to sustain peace agreements, while a peace consolidation approach emphasizes problems common to statebuilding, including how to reconstruct communities. Both seek in part to prevent conflict recurrence, though, and that is the focus of this chapter. Although more existing theory links stabilization programs with enduring peace, more existing experiments examine consolidation programs. Both approaches would benefit from...
Program area:
Type:
Published Paper
Date:
August 14, 2020
Download
There are approximately 70.8 million forcibly-displaced people worldwide, including 26 million registered refugees, about half of whom are children. Turkey has received more than 3.5 million refugees since the beginning of the Syrian Civil War in 2011, making it the country with the highest number of Syrian refugees. More than 1 million Syrian children live in Turkey as of 2020. To encourage access to education, the Turkish Ministry of Education made state schooling available to refugee children. However, many Turkish residents worry that this policy harms the school environment by increasing peer violence and facilitating social segregation along ethnic lines. Faced with these new challenges, teachers need guidance on how to maintain the quality of the learning environment. Well-developed social skills are vital to building not only cohesive classrooms but also communities and economies, as they allow members of society to communicate effectively and work together. One of these skill...
Country:
Program area:
Type:
Brief
Date:
August 11, 2020
Download
The researchers evaluate the impact of an educational program that aims to build social cohesion in ethnically mixed schools by developing perspective-taking ability in children. The program is implemented in Turkish elementary schools affected by a large influx of Syrian refugee children. The research team measures a comprehensive set of outcomes that characterize a cohesive school environment, including peer violence incidents, the prevalence of inter-ethnic social ties, and prosocial behavior. Using randomized variation in program implementation, the researchers find that the program significantly lowers peer violence and victimization on school grounds. The program also reduces the likelihood of social exclusion and increases inter-ethnic social ties in the classroom. The researchers find that the program significantly improves prosocial behavior, measured by incentivized tasks: treated students exhibit significantly higher trust, reciprocity, and altruism toward each other as well...
Country:
Program area:
Type:
Published Paper
Date:
August 06, 2020
Download
As part of IPA’s response to COVID-19, many existing and new data collections have shifted to remote data collection modes including computer-assisted telephone interviews (CATI), interactive voice response (IVR) and SMS surveys. These remote data collection modes allow research to continue, but there are many open questions about whether these types of data collection can effectively substitute for face-to-face surveying. Research on remote survey methods in low- and medium-income countries (LMICs) has been conducted intermittently over the past decade. This brief provides information on existing research on survey incentives in LMICs. It investigates how incentives may affect survey responses through outcomes beyond response rates such as sample composition changes and changes to response behavior. It provides suggestions on mechanisms that these effects may operate through as well as some suggestions for future research.
Type:
Phone Survey Methods Resource
Date:
July 31, 2020
Download
COVID-19 has resulted in many challenges for high-quality data collection. To this end, the Global Research and Data Support (GRDS) team at IPA has compiled best practices gleaned from over 50 remote survey data collections that IPA has conducted into a remote surveying handbook. This handbook describes ways to adjust common protocols and tasks needed to successfully implement a survey data collection. It focuses specifically on collecting data using computer-assisted telephone interviews (CATI), but also covers general details around interactive voice response (IVR), SMS, and web surveys. It pays special attention to the context of COVID-19 and strategies to maintain data quality during a pandemic. This handbook assumes some technical knowledge and familiarity with survey data collection. It is intended for researchers, but details the often-neglected skills of managing remote data collection, including the logistics of implementation and use of technical tools that are central to col...
Type:
Phone Survey Methods Resource
Date:
July 31, 2020
Download
As part of IPA’s response to COVID-19, many existing and new data collections have shifted to remote data collection modes including computer-assisted telephone interviews (CATI), interactive voice response (IVR), and SMS surveys. These remote data collection modes allow research to continue, but there are many open questions about whether these types of data collection can effectively substitute for face-to-face surveying. Research on remote survey methods in low- and medium-income countries (LMICs) has been conducted intermittently over the past decade. This brief provides information on existing research on how pre-survey notifications affect response rates and sample composition. It provides suggestions on mechanisms that pre-survey notifications operate through as well as some suggestions for future research.
Type:
Phone Survey Methods Resource
Date:
July 29, 2020
Download
The Cox’s Bazar Panel Survey (CBPS) tracks representative samples of Rohingya refugees and host communities in Cox’s Bazar district in southern Bangladesh. A phone-based follow-up survey from April 2020 reveals that, despite widespread knowledge of COVID-19, attendance at religious gatherings is high, representing a potentially important pathway for disease spread in refugee camps and host communities in Cox’s Bazar. Even after the imposition of lockdown restrictions in early April, attendance to religious events was still common in refugee camps and host communities alike. Over 75% of men in refugee camps and over 50% of men in host communities reported attending religious services at least once in the week prior to the survey (April 9-16, 2020). Most male respondents who attended religious gatherings did so regularly, for an average of 4.0 days and 2.2 days in the last week for refugees and hosts, respectively. These behaviors are prevalent despite widespread awareness of the sources...
Country:
Program area:
Topics:
Type:
Brief
Date:
July 29, 2020
Spanish
La propagación global del COVID-19 y las medidas de confinamiento para contenerle han incrementado el estrés económico y la violencia doméstica. Para enfrentar este desafío, los investigadores se han asociado en Colombia con IPA, Fundación Capital y Comfama para evaluar el impacto de una intervención interactiva basada en WhatsApp, que pretende mejorar la salud financiera y reducir la violencia doméstica al introducir consejos de comunicación de pareja en un programa existente de educación financiera. Los investigadores están midiendo el impacto en capacidad financiera, empoderamiento de las mujeres e incidencia de la violencia doméstica en el contexto de la pandemia por COVID-19. 
Country:
Type:
Brief
Date:
July 24, 2020
Download
As part of IPA’s response to COVID-19, many existing and new data collections have shifted to remote data collection modes including computer-assisted telephone interviews (CATI), interactive voice response (IVR) and SMS surveys. These remote data collection modes allow research to continue, but there are many open questions about whether these types of data collection can effectively substitute for face-to-face surveying. Research on remote survey methods in low- and medium-income countries (LMICs) has been conducted intermittently over the past decade. This paper reviews this evidence on remote surveying methods to inform researchers about the efficacy of remote surveying methods across three domains: cost, response rates, and representativeness. We report key lessons from this research as well as caveats and some areas for further research. The list of manuscripts, which serve as the source data for this review, is also available online.
Type:
Phone Survey Methods Resource
Date:
July 15, 2020
Download
Social protection programs are needed more than ever during periods of social upheaval but are also likely to be even harder to implement successfully. Furthermore, social upheaval makes measuring the impact of such policies all the more difficult. We study the impact of a multi-faceted social protection program, often referred to as a “graduation” model program, in Yemen during a period of civil unrest. We are unable to measure outcomes for four years, thus much remains unknown about what transpired in the intermediary time. After four years we find positive impacts on asset accumulation and savings behavior, albeit substantially less than the amount the household originally received. 
Country:
Program area:
Type:
Working Paper
Date:
July 15, 2020
Download
Women remain disadvantaged in access to management positions around the world. We conduct a field experiment with 24 large garment factories in Bangladesh to test for inefficient representation of women among line supervisors. We identify the marginal female and male candidates for supervisory positions and randomly assign them to manage production lines. Three sets of results emerge: (i) extensive diagnostic testing at baseline reveal few skill differences between marginal female and male supervisor candidates; (ii) initially, marginal female candidates have lower productivity and evaluations from sub-ordinate workers, though after four to six months, these gaps disappear; and (iii) the share of the female candidates retained as line supervisor after the trial is significantly higher than the share of female supervisors in the factories at baseline. This suggests that factories previously promoted fewer women than would have been optimal. Additional surveys and a lab-in-the-field expe...
Country:
Type:
Working Paper
Date:
July 01, 2020
This study exploits a randomized school health intervention that provided deworming treatment to Kenyan children and utilizes longitudinal data to estimate impacts on economic outcomes up to 20 years later. The effective respondent tracking rate was 84%. Individuals who received 2 to 3 additional years of childhood deworming experience an increase of 14% in consumption expenditure, 13% in hourly earnings, 9% in non-agricultural work hours, and are 9% more likely to live in urban areas. Most effects are concentrated among males and older individuals. Given deworming's low cost, a conservative annualized social internal rate of return estimate is 37%.
Country:
Program area:
Type:
Working Paper
Date:
July 01, 2020
The COVID-19 pandemic threatens lives and livelihoods, and, with that, has created immediate challenges for institutions that serve affected communities. We focus on implications for local microfinance institutions in Pakistan, a country with a mature microfinance sector, serving a large number of households. The institutions serve populations poorly-served by traditional commercial banks, helping customers invest in microenterprises, save, and maintain liquidity. We report results from ‘rapid response’ phone surveys of about 1,000 microenterprise owners, a survey of about 200 microfinance loan officers, and interviews with regulators and senior representatives of microfinance institutions. We ran these surveys starting about a week after the country went into lockdown to prevent the spread of the novel coronavirus. We find that, on average, week-on-week sales and household income both fell by about 90%. Households’ primary immediate concern in early April became how to secure food. As...
Country:
Program area:
Type:
Published Paper
Date:
June 18, 2020
Download
Se ha encontrado que la educación temprana tiene un efecto positivo sobre el hecho de que los estudiantes elijan cursos de matemáticas o ciencias en su curso educativo posterior o en sus elecciones profesionales. En Colombia, los investigadores se encuentran realizando un experimento aleatorio controlado para medir el impacto de un programa de educación preescolar basado en aprendizaje interactivo multimedia sobre las habilidades para las matemáticas y las ciencias de los niños, sobre sus estereotipos de género y de raza y sobre las creencias de los niños, los profesores y los padres. 
Country:
Program area:
Type:
Brief
Date:
June 15, 2020
Download
This study reports results from a randomized evaluation of a mandatory six-month internet-based sexual education course implemented across public junior high schools in 21 Colombian cities. Six months after finishing the course, the study finds a 0.4 standard deviation improvement in knowledge, a 0.2 standard deviation improvement in attitudes, and a 55 percent increase in the likelihood of redeeming vouchers for condoms as a result of taking the course. The data provide no evidence of spillovers to control classrooms within treatment schools. However, the analysis provides compelling evidence that treatment effects are enhanced when a larger share of a student’s friends also takes the course. The low cost of the online course along with the effectiveness the study documents suggests this technology is a viable alternative for improving sexual education in middle-income countries.
Country:
Program area:
Type:
Published Paper
Date:
June 03, 2020
Download
What constitutes financial health? Defining this conceptually, and constructing a simple empirical measure, is challenging. The idea of financial health is abstract and combines multiple indicators and concepts. Moreover, financial health is not necessarily tied to the usage of formal financial products, and thus cannot be measured solely through financial access indicators as it is possible to be financially healthy outside of the formal financial system. Any measure of financial health must also be able to capture less easily observable indicators such as financial management behaviors, as well as informal planning and coping mechanisms such as social networks. Financial health may also include subjective measures of wellbeing, stress, or satisfaction with one’s own position in life. We argue for a simple, transparent conceptualization of financial health. We start with a theoretical, almost definitional, assertion: finance is about moving money across time, space, and risky outcomes...
Country:
Program area:
Type:
Research Resource
Date:
June 01, 2020
Download
There is a lack of consensus between different researchers and organizations on how exactly to define and measure financial health. As a result, it is difficult to understand the relative impact of different policies and interventions on improving financial health, as the way progress is measured will vary from case to case. This paper proposes a solution to this problem by introducing a quantitative measurement tool for financial health. The tool can be adopted globally to benchmark progress on financial health as well as to better understand the impact of specific policy interventions and product solutions. As part of this tool, we propose three primary concepts that encompass financial health: Access-to-Funds, which is a final outcome construct, and Access-to-Finance and Financial Behavior, which are intermediate constructs that each incorporate several components. Between 2018 and 2019, IPA tested this measurement tool in eight countries: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Colombia, the Domi...
Country:
Program area:
Type:
Report
Date:
June 01, 2020
Download
The COVID-19 pandemic has closed schools around the world, forcing school systems and students to quickly attempt remote learning. A rapid response phone survey of over 1,500 high school students aged 14 to 18 in Ecuador was conducted to learn how students spend their time during the period of quarantine, examine their access to remote learning, and measure their mental health status. The data show that 59 percent of students have both an internet connection at home and a computer or tablet, 74 percent are engaging in some online or telelearning, and 86 percent have done some schoolwork on the last weekday. Detailed time-use data show most students have established similar daily routines around education, although gender and wealth differences emerge in time spent working and on household tasks. Closure of schools and social isolation are the two main problems students say they face, and while the majority are mostly happy, 16 percent have mental health scores that indicate depression....
Country:
Type:
Working Paper
Date:
May 21, 2020
Download
We study the prevalence of COVID‐19 symptoms in refugee and host communities and their correlates with current and pre‐COVID‐19 living conditions. We administered a phone‐based survey to a sample of 909 households in Cox’s Bazar which was drawn from a household panel representative of Rohingya refugees and the host population. We conducted a symptoms checklist to assess COVID‐19 risk based on the WHO guidelines. We included questions covering returning migration, employment, and food security. We asked additional questions on health knowledge and behaviors to a random subsample (n=460). 24.6% of camp residents and 13.4% of those in host communities report at least one common symptom of COVID‐19. Among those seeking treatment, a plurality did so at a pharmacy (42.3% in camps, 69.6% in host communities). While most respondents report good respiratory hygiene, between 76.7% (camps) and 52.2% (host community) had attended a communal prayer in the previous week. Another 47.4% (camps) 34.4%...
Country:
Program area:
Topics:
Type:
Working Paper
Date:
May 19, 2020
Download
Uganda has made substantial advancements in nancial consumer protection policy in recent years but understanding whether and how the nancial sector complies with these new regulations can be a challenge in the absence of systematic monitoring. Setting rules is insufficient to ensure proper market conduct, so supervision of sales visits is needed to ensure that the rules established are upheld in practice. To provide a snapshot of current practices and compliance with existing guidelines on consumer credit information provision at the point of sale, Innovations for Poverty Action (IPA) conducted a “mystery shopping” exercise of lending institutions in three districts of Uganda. For this survey, a mystery shopper posed as a regular customer and, unannounced, visited lenders in order to discover information about the loan application process without the credit officer knowing they are being observed, and thus avoiding impacting their normal behavior or practices.
Country:
Program area:
Type:
Report
Date:
May 08, 2020

Pages