In Sub-Saharan Africa, most labor employed on the farm and in family enterprises is family labor. When we account for the time by family members on the farm and enterprise profits, we find that they are making less per hour than they would be making in the unskilled informal labor market.
Sarah Custer, a Project Associate for the Saving for Change project in Mali, had the winning entry from the inaugural J-PAL/IPA Photo Contest. Her blog post provides context for the photograph:
In a recent article in Science, Dean Karlan and Jonathan Zinman find that small loans in the Philippines helped households manage risk, but did nothing for business growth, and actually seemed to reduce subjective wellbeing.