We partnered with the Ghanaian government to evaluate four methods of increasing achievement in schools with low average but heterogeneous student achievement. All methods focused on teaching at the learning level of the child—a remedial pull-out program with a teaching assistant, a remedial after school program with an assistant, an assistant teaching half the students, or teachers focusing on homogeneous groups of learners. Despite imperfect implementation, student learning increased across all four more so for female students, and gains persisted after the program ended. Fidelity of implementation decreased over time for the assistants but increased for the teachers.
Innovations for Poverty Action (IPA) shifted its data collection efforts during the COVID-19 pandemic to phone surveys. The IPA Ghana office developed and operationalized new study protocols in large research projects based on experiences implementing virtual phone banks and testing protocols during piloting. While it is important to re-write questionnaires, re-train enumerators, and overhaul data quality procedures for phone surveys, establishing effective protocols for building rapport and trust are vital to ensure that phone surveys produce high-quality data.
Professional advancement often depends on subjective performance reviews, especially in developing countries where objective data on performance may not be available. But subjective reviews may be susceptible to personal biases based on characteristics like gender. To better understand this in the education sector in Ghana, researchers compared both principals’ reviews and teacher self-assessments of effectiveness to an objective measure: increases in student test scores. Female teachers were objectively more effective based on increases in student test scores. However, principals were 11 percentage points less likely to rate a female teacher as effective compared to a male teacher. These findings contribute to the evidence on gender biases in subjective assessments and related barriers faced by women in labor markets in developing countries.
Business and employment around the world are being severely impacted by COVID-19, as 345 million full-time equivalent (FTE) jobs have been lost worldwide in the third quarter of 2020 alone and 45-53 percent of MSMEs worldwide anticipate falling into debt as a result of COVID-19. IPA conducted phone interviews with 1,357 respondents in mid-May 2020, 71 percent of whom were working before the pandemic hit. This brief summarizes results from the survey on business and employment and makes recommendations for job creation and economic recovery.
This presentation summarizes findings related to the impact of COVID-19 on food security and hunger, based on Round 1 of the RECOVR Survey. Countries surveyed: Burkina Faso, Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Zambia, Colombia, Mexico, and the Philippines.
The income elasticity of labor supply is a central parameter of many economic models. We test how labor supply and effort in northern Ghana respond to exogenous changes in income and wages using a randomized evaluation of a multi-faceted grant program combined with a bag-making operation. We find that recipients of the grant program increase, rather than reduce, their supply of labor. We argue that simple models with either labor or capital market frictions are not sufficient to explain the results, whereas a model that allows for a positive psychological produc- tivity effect from higher income does fit our findings.